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Sirr Royalty Essenti Group

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Efrem Kulagin
Efrem Kulagin

Between The Dimension Of Fantasy And Memory



This study explored the differences in emotional memory between adolescents with and without suicidal ideation. Fifty adolescents with depression and suicidal ideation, 36 with depression but no suicidal ideation, and 41 healthy controls rated the emotional valence of positive, neutral, and negative pictures. Then, the recognition of the images was evaluated 72 h later. Adolescents with suicidal ideation reported more negative emotional valence scores for positive and neutral pictures and were significantly less likely to recognize negative pictures than were those without suicidal ideation. The performance of adolescents with suicidal ideation on the negative picture recognition test was closely related to anxiety, depression severity, and intensity of suicidal ideation. The negative bias toward neutral stimuli and cognitive impairment may be important risk factors for adolescents with suicidal ideation. Improving emotional memory via targeted management approaches may help young people with suicidal ideation.




Between the Dimension of Fantasy and Memory


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Suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior are symptoms of adolescent depression, the prevalence of suicidal behaviour among Chinese adolescents increased before the age of 17 years18. Accumulating evidence indicates that neurocognitive deficits are an internal phenotype of suicide risk, and cognitive impairment hinders psychosocial function; however, most studies have focused on adults. Moreover, despite significant efforts made in recent years to prevent suicide among children and adolescents, the number of suicides is steadily increasing, and high levels of aggression and impulsivity are being highlighted as important characteristics of suicidal behavior among adolescents19. Notably, follow-up studies of attempted suicide by adolescents have revealed that they face a long-term and widespread risk of injury during adulthood, thereby creating or exacerbating social difficulties and problems in the future, regardless of the characteristics of their suicide attempt20,21. Memory may play an important role in the risk of suicidal behavior, possibly by preventing these individuals from using past experience to address current problems enabling them to looktowards the future22,23,24. Thus, it is necessary to examine the relationship between emotional memory and suicidal ideation at the early stage of childhood and adolescence to identify risk factors for suicidal behavior and design early interventions.


This study aimed to investigate the relationship between suicidal ideation and emotional memory in adolescents. Specifically, we combined the attentional bias task and emotional memory test to examine differences in attentional bias, emotional picture valence score, and recognition memory between adolescents with depression with and without suicidal ideation and healthy adolescents. We hypothesized that the group with suicidal ideation had positive emotional memory deficits (which were closely related to the intensity of suicidal ideation) compared with the group without suicidal ideation.


We found that the low scores for neutral pictures and high scores for cognitive impairment were risk factors for suicidal ideation in adolescents with depression. Picture valence has an interesting effect: When people view a picture, information from positive and neutral scenes accumulates in the memory at a constant rate, while information encoding from negative scenes is very slow at first but then gradually speeds up. Neutral scores are more easily interpreted as negative information than as positive information, and higher arousal leads to faster memory accumulation. Notably, memories of highly emotional events are malleable and easily distorted, and stress is regulated in different ways. The effects of reactivated emotional and neutral memory are long-lasting67, but patients with depression cannot inhibit neutral information from entering working memory and cannot inhibit and delete irrelevant information. Cognitive depression may be the basis of cognitive delay and attention deficit in patients with depression68. In the case of suicidal ideation, some people commit suicide, while others do not. Many external factors may play a role in the relationship between suicidal thoughts and suicidal behavior69, especially in emotional situations that promote such behavior. Previous studies70,71 have reported altered emotional memory biases in healthy volunteers from transcranial magnetic stimulation of the medial prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that we should pay attention to the impact of emotional memory and cognition on the maintenance and development of suicidal ideation in adolescents with depression in clinical practice.


In conclusion, the relationship between emotional memory deficit (negative tendency to evaluate positive and neutral stimuli and significantly reduced cognitive ability to evaluate negative content) and suicidal ideation may reflect the unique contribution of emotional memory deficit to suicidal ideation in adolescents with depression. Emotional memory deficit may be an important risk factor for suicidal ideation in adolescents with depression. Our study indicates that emotional state and suicidal ideation are associated with emotional memory ability. Given that adolescents may be reluctant to disclose information regarding suicidal thoughts or behaviors to strangers and suicidal ideation is common among them, the emotional memory task can be used to identify adolescents who are at risk of suicide and require appropriate intervention. Further studies on emotional memory at different stages of suicide are warranted to screen and identify early emotional memory deficits in adolescents to enable early prevention of suicide risk.


1. Despite its memorable subject matter and significant impact on the art world, the painting The Persistence of Memory is only slightly larger than a sheet of notebook paper, or approximately 9.5 x 13 inches. 2. Many art historians emphasize that the central figure in the painting is a self-portrait of Dali. However, the figure, which has human characteristics such as eyelashes as well as a free-form shape signifies metamorphosis, as do the clocks that are morphing from solid to liquid. Metamorphosis is a key concept in the Surrealist movement, reflecting the transformative power of dreams. 3. The Persistence of Memory alludes to the influence of scientific advances during Dali's lifetime. The stark yet dreamlike scenery reflects a Freudian emphasis on the dream landscape while the melted watches may refer to Einstein's Theory of Relativity, in which the scientist references the distortion of space and time. 4. The pocket watches are not the only references to time in the painting. The sand refers the sands of time and sand in the hourglass. The ants have hourglass-shaped bodies. The shadow that looms over the scene suggests the passing of the sun overhead, and the distant ocean may suggest timelessness or eternity. 5. The painting, which Dali completed in 1931, has made its home in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City for more than 80 years, having been donated in 1934 by an anonymous patron. 6. Three of the clocks in the painting may symbolize the past, present and future, which are all subjective and open to interpretation, while the fourth clock, which lies face-down and undistorted, may symbolize objective time. 7. The egg that lays on the distant shore is symbolic of life, which, like memory, has the potential to persist despite the breakdown or distortion of time. The egg also epitomizes the artist's obsession with the juxtaposition of hard and soft during his Surrealist period. 8. The insects in "The Persistence of Memory," a fly on one clock face and the ants on the face-down clock, variously signify death, disintegration and/or a parasitic relationship with time. 9. Dali's painting combines three art genres: the still life, the landscape and the self-portrait. A somewhat similar self-portrait appears in an earlier Dali work entitled The Great Masturbator. However, in The Persistence of Memory, the figure appears to be either dead or sleeping. 10. The denuded, broken branch in the painting, which art experts identify as an olive tree in the context of other Dali artworks, represents the demise of ancient wisdom as well as the death of peace, reflecting the political climate between the two World Wars as well as the unrest leading to the Spanish Civil War in Dali's native country.


You must be sure to explain the ethical dimension of your game clearly in the manual, in introductory material, or in mission briefings. For example, some games that have hostage-rescue scenarios make the death of a hostage a loss condition: If a hostage dies, the player loses. This means that the player has to be extra careful not to kill any hostages, even at the risk of his own avatar's life. In other games, the only loss condition is the avatar's death. In this case, many players shoot with complete abandon, killing hostages and their captors indiscriminately. In real life, of course, the truth is somewhere in between. Police officers who accidentally shoot a hostage are seldom prosecuted unless they've been grossly negligent, but it doesn't do their careers any good. You can emulate this by penalizing the player somehow. To be fair to the player, however, you need to make this clear at the outset.


Computer games are about bringing fantasies to life, enabling people to do things in make-believe that they couldn't possibly do in the real world. But make-believe is a dangerous game when it's played by people for whom the line between fantasy and reality is not clear. Young children (those under about age eight) don't know much about the real world; they don't know what is possible and what isn't, what is fantasy and what is reality. An important part of raising children is teaching them this difference. But until they've learned it, it's best to make sure that any violence in young children's games is suitably proportionate to their age. The problem with showing violence to children is not the violence, per se, but the notion that there's no price to pay for it. For a detailed and insightful discussion of how children come to terms with violence, read Killing Monsters: Why Children Need Fantasy, Super Heroes, and Make-Believe Violence by Gerard Jones (Jones, 2002). Ultimately, the violence in a game should serve the gameplay. If it doesn't, then it's gratuitous and you should consider doing without it. 350c69d7ab


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